Yesterday and today of India's education system


      Usually the tone behind the saying 'old is gold' is such that the new one looks like brass.  And this feeling is felt for every aspect of life.  Today we intend to talk about the education system of India.

     Comparing the old with the old education system, I started thinking about starting from 1930s-40s as I had personal relationships with educated people at that time and got authentic information and their invaluable experiences seem to be worth serving.  During that time, Montessori method of teaching kindergarten was started in an area of ​​Kutch.  There, Gijubhai Badheka had trained teachers running kindergartens.  Children going to kindergarten in Sigram (bullock cart).  In addition, all the children of the community were admitted to the kindergarten. 

   There was only one eligibility for admission - the child had to be three-and-a-half years old.  Paying a small fee means that everyone can afford to give such training to their children.  It is worth noting that the children of the working class, the general employed and the underprivileged get an informal education by playing with the children of the bright com.  Such a special kind of kindergarten laid the foundation of formal education by playing music, drawing, sports, acting and games that train all the senses.  The group life training was instinctive as all the children had the discipline to sit together and have breakfast and get everything according to their turn.  That is why the lessons of civic education did not have to be taught formally.  The total number in the kindergarten will be 35-40.  Now, it is true that such Montessori kindergartens were not accessible to all, but the rest of the facilities were almost the same as in other villages and towns.

   In those days, it was customary for students to go home and leave at five or six o'clock in the evening if the time for schooling, which usually provides primary and secondary education, was in the afternoon.  Back then, there was no new training or basic education.  But the concept of basic education was adopted by some school administrators.  One thing that was common was that mother tongue was the medium of instruction in all schools.  Apart from that, Gujarati, history, geography, science and mathematics were the main subjects.  As well as sports, gardening, drawing and music training through prayer.  Teachers used to give lessons at home, but it was not a burden, as lessons were taught in a simple style in the form of stories in the classroom.  Six monthly and annual examinations are required.  But very few students failed and were not afraid of exams.


The secondary school was to a large extent similar to the primary school education system.  In some schools, John Dalton's self-study method and the spread of Gandhian thought resulted in the addition of new training and basic teaching practices.  Spinning, sewing and farming were added as subjects for the purpose of understanding the value of labor.  Writing from litho (typed and printed) to do homework, the students would laugh because they were not constantly afraid of the expensive tuition fees and tuition fees paid by their parents, only their own strengths.  That's why I want to prove it.  In schools where not only the knowledge of letters and mathematics was given importance, almost all the children got the opportunity to learn and progress in fine arts like music, dance and drawing.  In a village or city where such facilities are not available, the parents of the place send their children to study in the schools of another village at an early age for the purpose of holistic development and culture.

        It can be seen that even in the fifties and sixties, the rucksack was a light flower.  Before the children left for school, they would play on the floor or on the school grounds without any supervision.  Even after coming home in the evening, he used to play games with his friends in the neighborhood.  Playing Hututu, Kho, Ubhi Kho, Nagol, Moi Dandiya, Ferrefudardi and many other self-discovered games.  Parents do not have to spend anything behind such games.  The songs sung while playing were learned from the female class of the house or the big bhandru.  This not only develops the language, strengthens the memory, but also inspires self-composition and the joy of adding rhymes or changing songs.

       If you look at it like this, five-six decades ago, if you passed through the streets and alleys of any village or city, life would be throbbing with the free laughter, innocent fun and restrained activities of the people, especially the young children.  One of the reasons was that he got to live his childhood.  After coming to school during the day, a new generation of children and youths would sit at night under lanterns or dim lamps, listening to stories from the elders, listening to their experiences and folk songs and singing along.  It is difficult to say why and when such a way of life began to disappear, but now all this seems like a fairy tale.

      One thing to note here is that in the early years before and after independence, all education from kindergarten to the highest level of college was given through the medium of mother tongue - even though it was British Raj at that time.  Even though the primary lessons of Sanskrit and English started in the seventh standard, both the subjects were added to the mainstream from the eighth standard.  And yet or say that's why students can master all languages.  In the same way, the fact that there was no burden other than personal ambition behind re-reading the lessons taught in the class and getting good marks in the exams is also worth noting.  Only those who have enjoyed learning to be light flowers know.  Today's students may never have that experience.

      It can be said that the quality of education imparted to the students during the first five-six decades of the twentieth century was excellent.  The teachers of that time had the level of knowledge of the subject.  They came fully equipped while teaching.  Although the teaching method was somewhat informal, discipline was maintained and a kind of intimacy was built between the teacher and the students.  Teaching lessons in a way that suits everyone by discerning the different strengths and attitudes of the students.  Thus every student develops fully.  In short, it was fun to teach teachers and teach students.  Indeed at that time the norms and methods of higher education from primary to nurtured Indian systems and values.  The school education system would be complementary to cultivate and cultivate the sacraments cultivated at home.

    Some of the generations who were educated in the 30s and 40s became active in the field and were able to equip their next generation to become citizens of independent India.  While some ashrams were established in the late forties and early fifties, school complexes with hostels were started in some small and big cities.  Especially in Saurashtra and Gujarat, many activists became active in creating facilities for girls' education.  An example of this is Roop Sanstha, inspired by Sarvashri Darbar Gopaldas Desai and Uchharangarai Dhebarbhai to establish Shri Kadvibai Virani Kanya Vidyalaya in Rajkot where an ideal school provides all-round education to girls.  Became committed to giving.  Lessons of self-reliance through community life were taught in hostel life in the above schools, where the importance of labor was automatically taught through cleaning and housekeeping.  In an ideal school like Virani Kanya Vidyalaya, the progress of the students from kindergarten to tenth standard is assessed by checking the quality of each student through continuous evaluation instead of examination method.  In this way, due to the non-burden of examinations, all the teachers as well as the students got the freedom and opportunity to perform local, provincial and national level tours, cultural programs and exhibitions centered on various subjects.  In the same way, due to the breadth of ideas and scope of work of the founders and founders of the institute, the school has benefited from the visits of eminent personalities in the field of literature and culture who have excelled in India's political, social and creative work.  The inculcation of the basic values ​​of Indian culture and the liberal national spirit by these and other such educational institutions resulted in a free environment.

        One thing that is clear from the changes in the current education system is that after independence, there was an excellent opportunity to educate one's own people through the medium of mother tongue, which was taken fast at that time.  But over time the medium of instruction should be the mother tongue i.e. the provincial language, this fact diminished in importance and was replaced by a growing fascination with English.  To justify this paranoia, it has been argued that English is a global language, helping our citizens to get business abroad and establishing India in the world.  All educators who know and understand the rules of child psychology, educational psychology and linguistics find such arguments very crippling.  The provincial and central governments, after years of declaring the basic right of citizens to free and compulsory education, immediately became indifferent to fulfilling that responsibility.  Therefore, the work of education began to be based on the generosity and administrative savvy of the private sector custodians like businessmen, philanthropists and leaders of different sects, who did not need any special educational vision or skills.

     Let us compare the teaching practice described above and the resulting mild flower comfort experienced in the upbringing and upbringing of children with the present environment.  Today, a four-year-old child has to take an exam to enter kindergarten.  The formal testing that has been going on since then continues until the end of getting a job.  The little ones go to school in their rich father's car, or on a scooter, or in fast vehicles like school buses or rickshaws.  Middle and upper middle class children go to so-called 'good' private schools for a hefty fee and all the rest go to normal private or government schools so they are trained to live between class distinctions at a very young age.  And this gap seems to pervade every level of society.

       As if all this is not enough, from primary school to college students, all the children and youth get up in the morning and go to tuition, study for six hours in school and come to the second tuition class in the evening as if there is less learning.  Teachers seem to be no longer proficient in their respective subjects.  Tuition is needed only if they do not give good education in the class, it has been forgotten.  When a child is old enough to strengthen his body, he cannot play, he cannot do other activities when he has to learn living lessons by cooperating with each other, and he cannot attend family or social festivals when he has time to develop his talents by cultivating all the senses.  We are all witnesses to what kind of citizens form today's education system.

     Over the years, education has become more and more a means of earning a living.  The gamble to get more marks has become so absurd that the exams taken for the measure of progress have become a machine that seems to take away all the interest and pleasure of the students' lives.  Childhood is lost in the pages of textbooks.  Adolescence is rife with tuition and competition for more marks.  Fifteen or sixteen precious years of the beginning of life have become a burden.

      However, this is not to say that everything in today's education is depressing.  As a result of the development of science and technology, students are getting more detailed information.  It is a pleasure to have an independent opinion on some matters.  When we hear of 'learning without weight' today, it is easy to compare the present education with the education imparted in the first half of the twentieth century and in the years immediately after independence and the lifelong education imparted by the then versatile generation.  The saying 'old is gold' seems to be true.  The future of India will be in the hands of the leavened people only if teachers, parents and students themselves, starting from academics, get rid of this heavy mechanical education system and move in a new direction of 'learning without burden'.  Otherwise, like the robot, the army of young men and women who have just run away from the glory of labor and run after wealth, where is the need today to add to it?


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